There are many modern coding languages and they contain some exceptions usually. Similarly, Java programming also includes exceptions useful to manage errors. An exception is an event that occurs at the time of execution of any program and disrupts the normal execution of the program. Thus, it terminates the program process abnormally. Another name for these common Runtime Exceptions in Java is Runtime Errors.

Java programming defines a special class with the name “Runtime Exception”. This helps coders forecast and recover from runtime exceptions. However, you can easily handle exceptions with a little code and planning. Here you can enable your code to track and update the root cause of the errors.

Therefore, to run a program with proper functioning without any errors, developers should grab the Runtime Exceptions provided by Java commonly.

Let us know the various examples of Java Runtime errors and how to fix them.

Types of Exceptions in Java

The exceptions in Java programming are of mainly two types- Checked and Unchecked. But according to Oracle, it says there are three types of common Runtime Exceptions in Java.

a) Checked Exception

The checked exceptions are the classes that directly take over the pitching class except for Runtime Exception and Error. Such as SQLException, IOException, and many others. Moreover, these exceptions are checked at compile time and not at runtime.

b) Unchecked Exception

The unchecked exceptions are the classes that take over the Runtime Exception. Such as ArithmeticException, NullPointerException, etc. Moreover, these exceptions are checked at runtime rather than at compile time.

c) Error

This is an irrecoverable fault. Such as OutOfMemoryError, AssertionError, etc.

10 Most Common Runtime Exceptions in Java

The following are examples of Runtime Errors in Java programming.

  • ArithmeticException
  • NullPointerException
  • NegativeArraySizeException
  • ClassCastException
  • ArrayStoreException
  • DateTimeException
  • ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsExceptiom
  • ConcurrentModificationException
  • NoSuchElementException
  • UnsupportedOperationException

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1) ArithmeticException

The ArithmeticException takes place when an exceptional arithmetic condition has occurred. Most Java applications perform data manipulation as a primary function. When the function includes division, a developer must be cautious about division by zero.

Here, the exception takes when the program tries to divide by zero. As a result, the Java program pitches an ArithmeticException when zero becomes the denominator at any time in a calculation.

The syntax of this exception is as follows:-

int x=80/0;// java pitches ArithmeticException  

2) NullPointerException

This type of exception is a very common Runtime Exceptions in Java that it generally faces. A NullPointerException is pitched when a Java program aims to process an object with a null value.

3) NegativeArraySizeException

While coding a program, developers must set the size of an array to a +ve integer. In case a minus sign falls into the array size statement, then the Java program will throw the NegativeArraySizeException.

To avoid this Java runtime exception it is to note that you don’t set the size of an array to a negative number.

4) ArrayStoreException

The ArrayStoreException in Java takes place when there is a placement of the wrong type of object into an array.

To avoid this type of Java exception you need to be more particular when stating the array. If the array is stated as a BigInteger type, then the Java program will treat the issue as a mismatch error at compile time, and not at runtime.

5) ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsExceptiom

In a Java program, an array needs a set size with the proper number. Here, the program throws an exception when an element of an array recovers through an illegal index. The index used here either exceeds the array size or is negative. The following code aims to add an element to the fifth index within an array that was built to contain only four elements:

String[] info = new String[4];

Info [5] = “Additional info”;

6) NoSuchElementException

In case, a class doesn’t carry any specified field or a variable, then the program throws such common Runtime Exceptions in Java.

7) ClassCastException

Java programming is a type of fully typed language that strictly applies type grading. It will not assign one object to another unless they have a diverse relationship.

The following code is an example, where the aim is to assign the Date object to a Timestamp, it pitches this error at runtime.

However, the Timestamp is taken over from Date. Therefore, every Timestamp here is considered a special type of Date. But diversity in these programs is unidirectional. Thus, it is not necessary that a Date should be a Timestamp.

If the allotment goes in the opposite direction it means a Timestamp is allowed into a Date. Then the Java runtime error may not come up.

8) DateTimeException

Manipulation of data is a tricky attempt in a Java Program. Time zones, datelines, and incompatible data formats cause the program to pitch this common Runtime Exception in Java.

However, there are many types of formats for dates available to choose from. Then you can switch to an ISO_DATE format and the runtime error will disappear.

9) ConcurrentModificationException

The method asList within an Array class doesn’t the only time a collection needs read-only therapy.

When you repeat a list, the primary collection should be fixed and not updated. Thus, the add method within a code in the program will pitch such type of error.

10) UnsupportedOperationException

Java coders frequently use the Arrays class to alter an array in a Java program into a more user-friendly List.

Moreover, when the List that the Java program returns is read-only. Coders who are not aware of this fact attempt to add new elements. Then it will pitch such a runtime exception.

To avoid this type of exception just avoid adding elements to a read-only List. Then you won’t see this type of runtime error further.

Thus, the above are the various common Runtime Exceptions in Java that the program fetches when there is an error in code. Also, you can see how to fix such errors above.  Further, we can also see there are some other types of errors that you may find in the Java program. Here, a few additional runtime error examples have been there.

1) Interrupted Exception

When a thread in a program is under processing or sleeping or in a queue, then the same break up. Here, the program pitches this error.

2) FileNotFoundException

This Java program runtime error appears when the file actually does not exist or does not open.

3) ClassNotFoundException

In case, the class definition is not found, then the Java program will pitch this Runtime error.

4) NumberFormat Exception

This runtime error appears when a method could not change a string into a numeric format/value.

How to Handle the Runtime Exception in Java?

Here are some major factors that are responsible for common Runtime Exceptions in Java programs.

  • Dividing or Splitting a number by zero.
  • Acquiring an out-of-range element within an array.
  • Trying to save an opposite type of value within a collection.
  • Processing an invalid argument or logic to a method.
  • Trying to change an invalid string into a number or numeric value.
  • Very short space in memory for thread data in the program.

Thus to solve these problems, here is the best solution.

You can find solutions for the runtime errors in this language using “try-catch” blocks such as:

  • Margin the declarations that can pitch a runtime exception in try-catch blocks.
  • Grab the exception.
  • Based on the various needs of the application development, take requisite action.

Summing up

Thus, the above are the various reasons and solutions mentioned for the runtime errors in the Java program. Every coding language has some exceptions and their solution also exists like the above. But it is very difficult to manage different types of errors and exceptions in a code. If you are ready to learn new things and accept challenges, then you can do this easily.

This is possible with the learning of Java programming. This makes it easy to track, analyze, and manage various errors in real-time. Moreover, you can become an expert to handle such common Runtime Exceptions in Java in your profession also.

So, just start your learning today to find the resolutions to the known and unknown errors in a code.

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